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PDF Handout – Gospel Text (English/Spanish)

This handout which can be downloaded, printed, and used in your ministry is provided by Bishop David O’Connell (Los Angeles Archdiocese)

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CATHOLICCATENA AUREAECUMENICAL COMMENTARIES
Catholic Productions

This I command you…

In the Gospel of John, chapter 15, Jesus teaches that if we do not produce good works, we will be separated from him and thrown into the fire. And, that if we do bear fruit, we will be pruned in order to bear more fruit. Check out the video above with Dr. Brant Pitre to learn more about this topic and the implications of what Jesus is teaching.

OUR SUNDAY VISITOR

So I have loved you

Gospel: John 15:9-17

  • Today’s Gospel continues the theme of love with the message that God has loved us, so therefore, we must love one another.
  • Love demands all we are, to the point of giving up life for the sake of another.
  • God is the source and object of our love.
SOURCE: Content adapted from Our Sunday Visitor

Raymond E. Brown

Scripture in Context

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An Ending Describing Resurrection Appearances Appended by a Later Copyist (16:9–20)

The Ascension of Jesus

Scripture Background by Fr. Clement D. Thibodeau (PDF)
Commentary & Faith Sharing by Fr. Eamon Tobin (PDF)

Click to access Ascension%20B%202021.pdf

©2020 Ascension Parish. All Rights Reserved. Used with permission.
Commentary from the Archdiocese of Military Services, USA (PDF)
Commentary by Sr. Mary M. McGlone

To the Ends of the Earth

Virtually all Catholic Scripture scholars concur that these last verses of the Gospel of Mark do not come from the hand of Mark the Evangelist. Mark ended his Gospel with the highly unsatisfactory explanation that the women fled from the empty tomb and said nothing to anyone because they were afraid. Mark used that conclusion to goad his community to proclaim the Gospel or admit that they would cower for the rest of their lives. His editors couldn’t withstand the temptation to give the Gospel a more satisfactory ending. The verses we hear today come from one of the revised endings that became a part of the final product of Mark’s Gospel. This is not to say that they lack “Gospel truth,” but only that they came after Mark finished his writing.

What these verses do is what a preacher or catechist does when preparing to summarize the Gospel in a way that seems adequate to their audience. The first part reflects the great commission in Matthew when Jesus sent the disciples to baptize in his name. The next verse echoes John 3, reminding us that God sent the Son into the world that the world might be saved and that those who refuse to believe in the Son are condemned.

In regard to the signs that will accompany believers, some like healing and exorcism were quite familiar to the disciples. Speaking in foreign languages reflects the Pentecost experience, but serpents are only mentioned in the Christian Scriptures in Luke 10:19 which promises the disciples sent on mission that they can tread on serpents. It also recalls the serpent tempter of Genesis, and calls to mind the image of the Virgin Mary crushing the serpent’s head. The overall point is the same as found in Luke’s commissioning of the disciples: Jesus promises that nothing will harm his evangelizers, a promise that must be understood in the light of his own martyrdom. The final lines respond to Mark’s original ending, proclaiming that the disciples did indeed preach the Gospel to the world.

©2017 National Catholic Reporter 2017 Reflections. All Rights Reserved. Sr. Mary McGlone  is a Sister of St. Joseph of Carondelet.

Commentary by Fr. Tony Kadavil

REGINALD H. FULLER

Ending of Mark’s Gospel

EXCERPT: It is now universally acknowledged that the earliest texts of Mark end at 16:8 and that verses 9-20 are a later addition. But that is not to say that they are worthless.

In any case, they form a part of the canonical Scriptures as the Church has received them (hence the term “canonical ending”). Also, the ending is a compilation of many traditions, some of them earlier than anything we have elsewhere in the Easter narratives.

The older view that it was an artificial summary of the other Gospel stories is now being increasingly abandoned. For instance, the command to preach the gospel and to baptize is presented in what is assuredly an earlier form than the more developed tradition at the end of Matthew.

At the same time, the second paragraph of our reading is clearly a summary based on the end of Luke and the beginning of Acts (note the separation of the ascension from the resurrection and the location of the appearances between them).

But unlike Luke and Acts, the sitting at the right hand of God is explicitly mentioned.

READ MORE at the SUNDAY WEB SITE

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AGAPE CATHOLIC Bible Study

Jesus Gives the Great Commission to His Disciples and Ascends to the Father

Through the ministry of the Holy Spirit, Jesus continued to be with the disciples as the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through accompanying signs. 
Jesus commissions His disciples to carry the Gospel message of salvation to the ends of the earth, to baptize believers as a condition of salvation, and to work miracles in His name.  Then, they witnessed Jesus ascending to Heaven to take His place at the right hand of God the Father.  However, we read that through the ministry of the Holy Spirit, Jesus continued to be with the disciples as the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through accompanying signs.  This is the same way Jesus continues to be with all baptized Christians who are members of His Body, the Church, and are promised a share in His glory.  He lives in us through the power of the Holy Spirit, and we continue to fulfill the mission He gave the Apostles and disciples to carry His Gospel of salvation to the ends of the earth.

SOURCE: All content below is from Michal E. Hunt at Agape Bible Study; used with permission. Section divisions and titles added. follow link above to go to original page.

Jesus’ resurrection appearance to the Apostles

The Gospels record Jesus’ resurrection appearance to the Apostles.  In the Gospel of Luke 24:36-49, Jesus opens their minds to understanding the Scriptures, and in John 20:19-23 Jesus breaths the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, giving them the power to “bind and loose” sins as they govern the Church, His Kingdom of Heaven on earth.  He appeared privately to St. Peter, to St. James His kinsman who became the first Christian Bishop of Jerusalem, and to more than 500 disciples at one time (1 Cor 15:5-7).  In verse 15 Jesus gives His disciples the commission to carry the Gospels to the ends of the earth and to work miracles in His name.  The Book of Acts records the “signs” of power that He gives the Apostles, including St. Paul experience with a snake (Acts 2:4-8; 5:16; 28:3-6).

An important statement about baptism

16 Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved; whoever does not believe will be condemned.

In verse 16, Jesus makes an important statement about baptism.  Faith in Jesus Christ is the first step, but it must be followed by action in submitting to the Sacrament of Baptism.  Baptism is absolutely necessary for salvation!  On Pentecost Sunday, the Jewish crowd cried out to St. Peter, asking what they need to do to be saved, and Peter answers: “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.  For the promise is made to you and to your children… (Acts 2:38-39a).  God will save whomever He wants, but the Church has received no other way to bring humanity to salvation other than the Sacrament of Baptism.  See CCC 1257.

Details not found in the first reading

19 So then the Lord Jesus, after he spoke to them, was taken up into heaven and took his seat at the right hand of God.  20 But they went forth and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through accompanying signs.

The First Reading records the Ascension of the Christ in greater detail, but St. Mark gives some significant information that is not included in that account:

[He] took his seat at the right hand of God. 

 Jesus rules over mankind from the right hand of the Father in the heavenly Sanctuary, just as the prophet Daniel saw in his vision:

One like a son of man coming, on the clouds of heaven; when he reached the ancient One and was presented before him, he received dominion, glory, and kingship; nations and peoples of every language serve him.  His dominion is an everlasting dominion that shall not be taken away, his kingship shall not be destroyed (Dan 7:13-14).

Jesus’ Ascension to the Father fulfills the promise of the Davidic Covenant in which God promised David,

Your house and your kingdom shall endure forever before me; your throne shall stand firm forever (2 Sam 7:16).

The Great Commission

Even though Jesus has ascended to the Father, He did not abandon His disciples, nor did He abandon us to make our journey to salvation alone.  Through the ministry of the Holy Spirit: the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through accompanying signs (verse 20).  The miracles the disciples worked in Jesus’ name confirmed for them His divine presence throughout their mission to carry the Gospel from Jerusalem to the ends of the earth.  And in the Sacraments Jesus gave His Church He continues to nourish, protect, and guide us on our journey to salvation and enable us to carry out our covenant obligations. 

The command the disciples received to Go into the whole world and proclaim the Gospel to every creature is the same commissioning every baptized Christian receives in the Sacrament of Confirmation.  We are called to take up the mantle of apostleship and to fearlessly proclaim the Gospel of salvation.  If we are obedient to the same command Jesus gave His Apostles, then one day, when we also ascend to the heavenly kingdom of our Lord, He will welcome us with the words: “Well done, my good and faithful servant!”

SOURCE: content taken from Michal E. Hunt at Agape Bible Study; used with permission. Section divisions and titles added.

The Catena Aurea (Golden Chain) is Thomas Aquinas’ compilation of Patristic commentary on the Gospels. It seamlessly weaves together extracts from various Church Fathers.

Annotated index of Church Fathers used in commentary

Third Century

  • Origen – Alexandrian biblical critic, exegete, theologian, and spiritual writer; analyzed the Scriptures on three levels: the literal, the moral, and the allegorical
  • Cyprian – pagan rhetorician converted to Christianity; acquired acquired a profound knowledge of the Scriptures and the writings of Tertullian; elected bishop of Carthage; martyred in 258

Fourth Century

  • Eusebius – Bishop of Caesarea; author of Ecclesiastical History, the principal source for the history of Christianity from the Apostolic Age till his own day; also wrote a valuable work on Biblical topography called the Onomasticon
  • Athanasius – Bishop of Alexandria; attended the Council of Nicea; opposed Arianism, in defence of the faith proclaimed at Nicaea—that is, the true deity of God the Son
  • Hilary – Bishop of Poitiers; the earliest known writer of hymns in the Western Church; defended the cause of orthodoxy against Arianism; became the leading Latin theologian of his age
  • Gregory of Nazianzus – one of the “Cappadocian Fathers”; a great influence in restoring the Nicene faith and leading to its final establishment at the Council of Constantinople in 381
  • Gregory of Nyssa – one of the “Cappadocian Fathers”; Bishop of Nyssa; took part in the Council of Constantinople
  • Ambrose – Bishop of Milan; partly responsible for the conversion of Augustine; author of Latin hymns; it was through his influence that hymns became an integral part of the liturgy of the Western Church
  • Jerome – biblical scholar; devoted to a life of asceticism and study; his greatest achievement was his translation of the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate); also wrote many biblical commentaries
  • Nemesius – Christian philosopher; Bishop of Emesa in Syria
  • Augustine – Bishop of Hippo (in northern Africa); a “Doctor of the Church”; most famous work is his Confessions; his influence on the course of subsequent theology has been immense
  • Chrysostom – Bishop of Constantinople; a “Doctor of the Church”; a gifted orator; his sermons on Gen, Ps, Isa, Matt, John, Acts, and the Pauline Epistles (including Hebrews) established him as the greatest of Christian expositors
  • Prosper of Aquitaine – theologian; supporter of Augustinian doctrines; closely associated with Pope Leo I (“the Great”)
  • Damasus – pope; active in suppressing heresy
  • Apollinaris of Laodicea – Bishop of Laodicea; close friend of Athanasias; vigorous advocate of orthodoxy against the Arians
  • Amphilochius of Iconium – Bishop of Iconium; close friend of the Cappadocian Fathers; defended the full Divinity of the Holy Spirit

Fifth Century

  • Asterius of Amasea – Arian theologian; some extant homilies on the Psalms attributed to him
  • Evagrius Ponticus – spiritual writer; noted preacher at Constantinople; spent the last third of his life living a monastic life in the desert
  • Isidore of Pelusium – an ascetic and exegete; his extant correspondence contains much of doctrinal, exegetical, and moral interest
  • Cyril of Alexandria – Patriarch of Alexandria; contested Nestorius; put into systematic form the classical Greek doctrines of the Trinity and of the Person of Christ
  • Maximus of Turin – Bishop of Turin; over 100 of his sermons survive
  • Cassion (prob. Cassian) – one of the great leaders of Eastern Christian monasticism; founded two monasteries near Marseilles; best known books the Institutes and the Conferences
  • Chrysologus – Bishop of Ravenna; a “Doctor of the Church”
  • Basil “the Great” – one of the “Cappadocian Fathers”; Bishop of Caesarea; responsible for the Arian controversy’s being put to rest at the Council of Constantinople
  • Theodotus of Ancyra – Bishop of Ancyra; wrote against the teaching of Nestorius
  • Leo the Great – Pope who significantly consolidated the influence of the Roman see; a “Doctor of the Church”; his legates defended Christological orthodoxy at the Council of Chalcedon
  • Gennadius – Patriarch of Constantinople; the author of many commentaries, notably on Genesis, Daniel, and the Pauline Epistles
  • Victor of Antioch – presbyter of Antioch; commentator and collector of earlier exegetical writings
  • Council of Ephesus – declared the teachings of Nestorious heretical, affirming instead the unity between Christ’s human and divine natures
  • Nilus – Bishop of Ancyra; disciple of St John Chrysostom; founder of a monastery; conducted a large correspondence influencing his contemporaries; his writings deal mainly with ascetic and moral subjects

Sixth Century

  • Dionysius Areopagita (aka Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite) – mystical theologian; combined Neoplatonism with Christianity; the aim of all his works is the union of the whole created order with God
  • Gregory the Great – Pope; a “Doctor of the Church”; very prolific writer of works on practical theology, pastoral life, expositions of Job, sermons on the Gospels, etc.
  • Isidore – Bishop of Seville; a “Doctor of the Church”; concerned with monastic discipline, clerical education, liturgical uniformity, conversion of the Jews; helped secure Western acceptance of Filioque clause
  • Eutychius (Patriarch of Constan­tinople) – consecrated the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople; defended the Chalcedonian faith against an unorthodox sect; became controversial later in life
  • Isaac (Bp. of Nineveh) (aka Isaac the Syrian) – monastic writer on ascetic subjects
  • Severus (Bp. of Antioch) – Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch; the leading theologian of the moderate Monophysites
  • John Climacus – ascetic and writer on the spiritual life; later Abbot of Mt. Sinai; best known for his Ladder of Divine Ascent which treats of the monastic virtues and vices
  • Fulgentius – Bishop of Ruspe in N. Africa; scholarly disposition; follower of St. Augustine; wrote many treatises against Arianism and Pelagianism

Seventh Century

  • Maximus ( of Constantinople, 645.) – Greek theologian; prolific writer on doctrinal, ascetical, exegetical, and liturgical subjects

Eighth Century

  • Bede (131CESK) – “the Venerable Bede”; a “Doctor of the Church”; pedagogue, biblical exegete, hagiographer, and historian, the most influential scholar from Anglo-Saxon England
  • John Damascene – Greek theologian; a “Doctor of the Church”; defender of images in the Iconoclastic Controversy; expounded the doctrine of the perichoresis (circumincession) of the Persons of the Trinity
  • Alcuin – Abbot of St. Martin’s (Tours); a major contributor to the Carolingian Renaissance; supervised the production of several complete editions of the Bible; responsible for full acceptance of the Vulgate in the West

Ninth Century

  • Haymo (of Halberstadt) – German Benedictine monk who became bishop of Halberstadt; prolific writer
  • Photius (of Constantinople) – Patriarch of Constantinople; a scholar of wide interests and encyclopedic knowledge; his most important work, Bibliotheca, is a description of several hundred books (many now lost), with analyses and extracts; also wrote a Lexicon
  • Rabanus Maurus – Abbot of Fulda in Hess Nassau; later Archbishop of Mainz; wrote commentaries on nearly every Book of the Bible
  • Remigius (of Auxerre) – monk, scholar, and teacher
  • Paschasius Radbertus – Carolingian theologian; wrote commentaries on Lamentations and Matthew, as well as the first doctrinal monograph on the Eucharist, he maintained the real Presence of Christ

Eleventh Century

  • Theophylact – Byzantine exegete; his principal work, a series of commentaries on several OT books and on the whole of the NT except Revelation, is marked by lucidity of thought and expression and closely follows the scriptural text
  • Anselm – Archbishop of Canterbury; a “Doctor of the Church”; highly regarded teacher and spiritual director; famous ontological argument for the existence of God as “that than which nothing greater can be thought”
  • Petrus Alphonsus – Jewish Spanish writer and astronomer, a convert to Christianity; one of the most important figures in anti-Judaic polemics
  • Laufranc (prob. Lanfranc) – Archbishop of Canterbury; commented on the Psalms and Pauline Epistles; his biblical commentary passed into the Glossa Ordinaria

Mark 16:14-18

14. Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.

15. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.

16. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believed not shall be damned.

17. And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues;

18. They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.

COMMENTARY

GLOSS. (non occ.) Mark, when about to finish his Gospel, relates the last appearance of our Lord to His disciples after His resurrection, saying,1 For the last time he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat. (Acts 1:4, 9)

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) We should observe that Luke says in the Acts, As he2 was eating with them he commanded that they should not depart from Jerusalem, and shortly afterwards, while they beheld he was taken up. For He ate, and then ascended, that by the act of eating, the truth of the flesh might be declared; wherefore it is also here said, that he appeared to them for the last time as they sat at meat.

PSEUDO-JEROME. But He appeared when all the eleven were together, that all might be witnesses, and relate to all men what they had seen and heard in common. It goes on: And upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them who had seen him after his resurrection.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) But how was this done the last time? The last occasion on which the Apostles saw the Lord upon earth happened forty days after the resurrection; but would He then have upbraided them for not believing those who had seen Him risen, when they themselves had so often seen Him after His resurrection? It remains therefore that we should understand that Mark wished to say it in few words, and said for the last time, because it was the last time that He shewed Himself that day, as night was coming on, when the disciples returned from the country into Jerusalem, and found, as Luke says (Luke 24:33.), the eleven and those who were with them, speaking together concerning the resurrection of our Lord. But there were some there who did not believe; when these then were sitting at meat, (as Mark says,) and were still speaking, (as Luke relates,) The Lord stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you; (Luke 24:36) as Luke and John say. (John 20:19) The rebuke therefore which Mark here mentions, must have been amongst those words, which Luke and John say, that the Lord at that time spoke to the disciples. But another question is raised, how Mark says that He appeared when the eleven sat at meat, if the time was the first part of the night on the Lord’s day, when John plainly says that Thomas was not with them, who, we believe, had gone out, before the Lord came in to them, after those two had returned from the village, and spoken with the eleven, as we find in Luke’s Gospel. But Luke in his relation leaves room for supposing that Thomas went out first, while they spoke these things, and that the Lord entered afterwards; Mark however from his saying, for the last time he appeared to the eleven as they sat at meat, forces us to believe that he was there, unless indeed, though one of them was absent, he chose to call them the eleven, because the company of the Apostles was then called by this number, before Matthias was chosen into the place of Judas. Or if this be a harsh way of understanding it, let us understand that it means that after many appearances, He shewed Himself for the last time, that is, on the fortieth day, to the Apostles, as they sat at meat, and that since He was about to ascend from them, He rather wished on that day to reprove them for not having believed those who had seen Him risen before seeing Him themselves, because after His ascension even the Gentiles on their preaching were to believe a Gospel, which they had not seen. And so the same Mark immediately after that rebuke says, And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. And lower down, He that believeth not shall be condemned. Since then they were to preach this, were not they themselves to be first rebuked, because before they saw the Lord they had not believed those to whom He had first appeared?

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) Another reason also why our Lord rebuked His disciples, when He left them as to His bodily presence, was, that the words which He spoke on leaving them might remain more deeply impressed upon the hearts of His hearers.

PSEUDO-JEROME. But He rebukes their want of faith, that faith might take its place; He rebukes the hardness of their stony heart, that the fleshy heart, full of love, might take its place.

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) After rebuking the hardness of their hearts, let us hear the words of advice which He speaks. For it goes on: Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. Every man must be understood by every creature; for man partakes something of every creature; he has existence as have stones, life as trees, feeling as animals, understanding as have Angels. For the Gospel is preached to every creature, because he is taught by it, for whose sake all are created, whom all things are in some way like, and from whom therefore they are not alien. By the name of every creature also every nation of the Gentiles may be meant. For it had been said before, Go not into the way of the Gentiles. (Matt. 10:5) But now it is said, Preach the Gospel to every creature, so that the preaching of the Apostles which was thrust aside by Judæa, might be an assistance to us, since Judæa had haughtily rejected it, thus witnessing to her own damnation.

THEOPHYLACT. Or else; to every creature, that is, whether believing or unbelieving. It goes on: He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved. For it is not enough to believe, for he who believeth and is not baptized, but is a catechumen, has not yet attained to perfect salvation.

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) But perhaps some one may say in himself, I have already believed, I shall be saved. He says what is true, if he keeps his faith by works; for that is a true faith, which does not contradict by its deeds what it says in words. There follows: But he that believeth not shall be damned.

BEDE. (ubi sup.) What shall we say here about infants, who by reason of their age cannot yet believe; for as to older persons there is no question. In the Church then of our Saviour children believe by others, as also they drew from others the sins which are remitted to them in baptism. It goes on: And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents.

THEOPHYLACT. That is, they shall scatter before them serpents, whether intellectual or sensible, as it is said, Ye shall tread upon serpents and scorpions, which is understood spiritually. But it may also mean sensible serpents, as when Paul received no hurt from the viper. There follows: And if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them. (Luke 10:19) We read of many such cases in history, for many persons have drank poison unhurt, by guarding themselves with the sign of Christ. It goes on: They shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recorer.

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) Are we then without faith because we cannot do these signs? Nay, but these things were necessary in the beginning of the Church, for the faith of believers was to be nourished by miracles, that it might increase. Thus we also, when we plant groves, pour water upon them, until we see that they have grown strong in the earth; but when once they have firmly fixed their roots, we leave off irrigating them. These signs and miracles have other things which we ought to consider more minutely. For Holy Church does every day in spirit what then the Apostles did in body; for when her Priests by the grace of exorcism lay their hands on believers, and forbid the evil spirits to dwell in their minds, what do they, but cast out devils? And the faithful who have left earthly words, and whose tongues sound forth the Holy Mysteries, speak a new language; they who by their good warnings take away evil from the hearts of others, take up serpents; and when they are hearing words of pestilent persuasion, without being at all drawn aside to evil doing, they drink a deadly thing, but it will never hurt them; whenever they see their neighbours growing weak in good works, and by their good example strengthen their life, they lay their hands on the sick, that they may recover. And all these miracles are greater in proportion as they are spiritual, and by them souls and not bodies are raised.

Mark 16:19-20

19. So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.

20. And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.

COMMENTARY

PSEUDO-JEROME. The Lord Jesus, who had descended from heaven to give liberty to our weak nature, Himself also ascended above the heavens; wherefore it is said, So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) By which words He seems to shew clearly enough that the foregoing discourse was the last that He spake to them upon earth, though it does not appear to bind us down altogether to this opinion. For He does not say, After He had thus spoken unto them, wherefore it admits of being understood not as if that was the last discourse, but that the words which are here used, After the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received into heaven, might belong to all His other discourses. But since the arguments which we have used above make us rather suppose that this was the last time, therefore we ought to believe that after these words, together with those which are recorded in the Acts of the Apostles, our Lord ascended into heaven.

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) We have seen in the Old Testament that Elias was taken up into heaven. But the ethereal heaven is one thing, the aerial is another. The aerial heaven is nearer the earth, Elias then was raised into the aerial heaven, that he might be carried off suddenly into some secret region of the earth, there to live in great calmness of body and spirit, until he return at the end of the world, and pay the debt of death. We may also observe that Elias mounted up in a chariot, that by this they might understand that a mere man requires help from without. But our Redeemer, as we read, was not carried up by a chariot, not by angels, because He who had made all things was borne over all by His own power. We must also consider what Mark subjoins, And sat at the right hand of God, since Stephen says, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God. Now sitting is the attitude of a judge, standing of one fighting or helping. Therefore Stephen, when toiling in the contest, saw Him standing, whom he had for his helper; but Mark describes Him as sitting after His assumption into heaven, because after the glory of His assumption, He will in the end be seen as a judge.

AUGUSTINE. (de Symbolo, 4) Let us not therefore understand this sitting as though He were placed there in human limbs, as if the Father sat on the left, the Son on the right, but by the right hand itself we understand the power which He as man received from God, that He should come to judge, who first had come to be judged. For by sitting we express habitation, as we say of a person, he sat himself down in that country for many years; in this way then believe that Christ dwells at the right hand of God the Father. For He is blessed and dwells in blessedness, which is called the right hand of the Father; for all is right hand there, since there is no misery. It goes on: And they went forth and preached every where, the Lord working with than, and confirming the word with signs and wonders.

BEDE. (ubi sup.) Observe that in proportion as Mark began his history later, so he makes it reach in writing to more distant times, for he began from the commencement of the preaching of the Gospel by John, and he reaches in his narrative those times in which the Apostles sowed the same word of the Gospel throughout the world.

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) But what should we consider in these words, if it be not that obedience follows the precept and signs follow the obedience? For the Lord had commanded them, Go into all the world preaching the Gospel, and, Ye shall be witnesses even unto the ends of the earth.

AUGUSTINE. (Epist. cxcix. 12.) (Acts 1:8) But how was this preaching fulfilled by the Apostles, since there are many nations in which it has just begun, and others in which it has not yet begun to be fulfilled? Truly then this precept was not so laid upon the Apostles by our Lord, as though they alone to whom He then spoke were to fulfil so great a charge; in the same way as He says, Behold, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world, apparently to them alone; but who does not understand that the promise is made to the Catholic Church, which though some are dying, others are born, shall be here unto the end of the world?

THEOPHYLACT. But we must also know from this that words are confirmed by deeds as then in the Apostles works confirmed their words, for signs followed. Grant then, O Christ, that the good words which we speak may be confirmed by works and deeds, so that at the last, Thou working with us in word and in deed, we may be perfect, for Thine as is fitting is the glory both of word and deed. Amen.

SOURCE: eCatholic 2000 Commentary in public domain.

A chapter by chapter and verse by verse study of Mark given from a non-Catholic perspective. Paul LeBoutillier is pastor of Calvary Chapel Ontario, Oregon.

Richard Niell Donovan

Gospel Exegesis

MK 16:15-20  COMMENTARY UNAVAILABLE

SOURCE: Richard Niell Donavan, a Disciples of Christ clergyman, published SermonWriter from 1997 until his death in 2020. His wife Dale has graciously kept his website online. A subscription is no longer required.
Feasting on the Word

Preaching About Signs

Mark 16:17-18. For most people, talk about handling snakes and drinking deadly things strains credibility. Many will also find casting out demons and speaking in tongues just as hard to take. For some, even laying hands on the sick will be a challenge. So should a sermon dismiss the notion of signs completely? Probably not, for signs that the Lord is working with us and confirming our message are important for establishing trust, both within the church and for its mission to the world.


A sermon therefore might well seek to develop another list of signs, one more appropriate for contemporary preaching. The preacher will want to exercise care, however, lest one set of incredible signs be replaced by another. Since the sermon will be working from Mark, its exploration of true discipleship in 8:34–38; 9:35–37; and 10:42–45 is a good place to start.
Before giving up the list of signs in Mark 16:17–18, however, consider this: Many will find language of serpents, demons, and deadly things appropriate to describe their deepest fears. Laying hands on the sick may not cure a disease, but it can still be healing. Speaking in new tongues need not be limited to ecstatic speech. It can also apply to learning new languages that allow more productive work with immigrants or opportunities to engage in mission in other parts of the world.

SOURCE: Content taken from FEASTING ON THE WORD, YEAR B (12 Volume Set); David L. Bartlett (Editor); Copyright © 2011. Westminster John Knox Press. All rights reserved.
Christ-Centered Exposition

Danger of Showing Off One's Faith

Just a word of caution. The person who takes up snakes to prove his or her faith is yielding to the temptation Satan presented to Jesus on the pinnacle of the temple in Matthew 4:5-7. Satan said, in effect, "Cast yourself down and see if God will take care of you." Satan wants us to "show off our faith and force God to perform unnecessary miracles. Warren Wiersbe puts it well:

" Jesus refused to tempt God, and we should follow his example. Yes, God cares for his children when, in his will, they are in dangerous places; but he is not obligated to care for us when we foolishly get out of his will. We are called to live by faith, not by chance, and to trust God, not tempt him" (Wiersbe, p. 155).

SOURCE: Content taken from Holman New Testament Commentary Series (12 Volume Set); Holman Reference Editorial Staff (Author); Copyright © 2001. Holman Reference. All rights reserved.

Life Recovery Bible

Our Faith is Foundational for Salvation and Recovery

Mark 16:9-20 Many of the disciples had a hard time believing that Jesus had risen from the dead. When they finally met the resurrected Jesus, he rebuked them for their unbelief. Then Jesus rewarded his followers as they came to believe. Faith is foundational for salvation and recovery; unbelief leads to condemnation and relapse. As we grow in our faith in Jesus, we will discover that the power of his resurrection can touch and transform our life. Then we can become a source of encouragement to others as we share how God has delivered us.

SOURCE: Content taken from THE LIFE RECOVERY BIBLE notes by Stephen Arterburn & David Stoop. Copyright © 1998, 2017. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, a Division of Tyndale House Ministries. All rights reserved.
LIFE APPLICATION STUDY BIBLE

Power and Servanthood

Mark 16:19 When Jesus ascended into heaven, his physical presence left the disciples (Acts 1:9). Jesus’ sitting at God’s right hand signifies the completion of his work, his authority as God, and his coronation as King. Mark 16:20 Mark’s Gospel emphasizes Christ’s power as well as his servanthood. Jesus’ life and teaching turn the world upside down. The world sees power as a way to gain control over others. But Jesus, with all authority and power in heaven and earth, chose to serve others. He held children in his arms, healed the sick, washed the disciples’ feet, and died for the sins of the world. Following Jesus means receiving this same power to serve. As believers, we are called to be servants of Christ. As Christ served, so we are to serve.

SOURCE: Content taken from LIFE APPLICATION STUDY BIBLE NOTES, Copyright © 2019. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, a Division of Tyndale House Ministries. All rights reserved.

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