Ascension of the Lord (C)

///Luke 24:46-53 | Ascension of Jesus

///Luke 24:46-53 | Ascension of Jesus

GOSPEL COMMENTARYCHURCH FATHERS

Jesus’ Departure

Homilies | Luke 24:46-53

The Context

Gospel commentary excerpts from a variety of sources.
Click on links to view original source material.
Luke 24:46-53 Ascension
EVENTS: BEFORE & AFTER
      Matthew Mark Luke John
BEFORE
154 Doubting Thomas resurrection appearance 20:24–29
155 Catch of 153 fish miracle 21:1–24

TEXT THIS WEEK
156 Ascension of Jesus resurrection appearance 16:19 24:50–53

AFTER
157 Dispersion of the Apostles miscellaneous 28:19–20 16:20
GOSPEL/ACTS COMPARISON

Gospel / Acts comparison

SERMON WRITER – Luke and Mark are the only Gospels to give an account of the ascension, and Mark’s account is part of his longer ending, which was probably added later. Matthew’s Gospel closes with Jesus giving the Great Commission without mentioning the ascension (Matthew 28:16-20). John’s Gospel has a lengthy farewell section, but does not give an account of the ascension.

Luke, however, gives two accounts—a brief account of the ascension here and a lengthier account in Acts 1:6-11. There are significant differences between the two accounts:

  • Most significantly, Luke’s Gospel appears to have Jesus ascending on Easter evening, while his Acts of the Apostles has Jesus appearing to the disciples for a forty-day period after the resurrection (Acts 1:3). However, there is nothing in the Gospel account that specifically says that the ascension takes place on Easter. Most likely, Luke simply touches briefly on the ascension in his Gospel and expands the story in Acts.
  • Luke 24:50 locates the ascension at Bethany, while Acts 1:12 says that the disciples, following the ascension, returned to Jerusalem from “the mount called Olivet.” However, that hardly qualifies as a discrepancy, because Bethany is on the east slope of the Mount of Olives.

DR. KIERAN O’MAHONY, OSA – There is a special flavour to the ending in Luke because it bridges a two-volume work, synthesising comprehensively yet unobtrusively the themes of the third gospel and leaving the reader in a mood of anticipation. Chronologically, the readings today are the wrong way around—it would make more sense to hear this reading first and only then to move to the one from Acts.

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🔴 CATHOLIC PRAXIS

The Ascension is the climax of the Paschal Mystery

DR. BRANT PITREMany of us, when we think of Jesus offering sacrifice, we think just of Calvary, where he pours out his blood and his life on the cross. And to be sure, that is the supreme sacrifice. And we might also think of the Last Supper, in which he pours out his body and blood under the appearance of bread and wine. And that too is an essential part of the Paschal mystery. But what we tend to forget is that that earthly sacrifice that Jesus starts in the upper room and brings to a climax on Calvary, doesn’t stop with Calvary. But that in his resurrection from the dead and then his ascension into Heaven, Jesus takes his body, which is now crucified and risen (but still has the wounds), and he brings that human nature, that human body, that glorified body, into the heavenly sanctuary where he offers himself as a sacrifice to the Father, not in time, but in eternity; not on earth, but in Heaven.”

Background (v 45)

Then he opened their minds to understand the scriptures

CROSS REFERENCES 🔑

45. opened. T#1056. Ge +*3:7. Ex *4:11. Jb 33:16. 36:10. Ps 119:18. Is 29:10-12, *18, *19. Jn *2:22. Ac *16:14. *26:18. 1 Co 2:11. 2 Co *3:14-18. *4:4-6. Ep 5:14. 1 J 5:20. Re 3:7. the scriptures. ver. 27, 32. Mt 21:42.


COMMENTARY

The church’s proclamation (Greek: kerygma)

DR. KIERAN O’MAHONY, OSA – Proclamation (kergyma) occurs only here in the gospel, but the verb to proclaim is more common (9 in Lk, and 8 in Acts). See Acts 2:28 and 1:8. Jerusalem is symbolically important in Luke-Acts: the ministry moves to the city and the mission sets out from it.


SERMON WRITER – Luke does not tell us which scriptures Jesus opens their minds to understand. There is no single Old Testament scripture that incorporates all the three major themes of verses 46-47—three themes that will form the core of the church’s kerygma:

(1) the suffering and death of the Messiah,
(2) his resurrection on the third day, and
(3) the proclamation of repentance and forgiveness to all nations.

OLD TESTAMENT SCRIPTURES

Old Testament scriptures that address particular elements which Luke alludes to or quotes in Luke-Acts:

  • Isaiah 53:7-8 says, “He was oppressed, yet when he was afflicted he didn’t open his mouth. As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and as a sheep that before its shearers is mute, so he didn’t open his mouth. He was taken away by oppression and judgment; and as for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living and stricken for the disobedience of my people?” Luke tells us that it was these verses that the Ethiopian eunuch was reading. Philip used these verses to proclaim the good news about Jesus to him (Acts 8:32-35).
  • Psalm 16:10 says, “For you will not leave my soul in Sheol, neither will you allow your holy one to see corruption”. Luke quotes this verse in Acts 2:27; 13:35.
  • Hosea 6:2 says, “After two days he will revive us. On the third day he will raise us up, and we will live before him”. This may be the verse to which Jesus refers in Luke 24:46.
  • In Luke 11:29-32, Jesus refers to the sign of Jonah. In Matthew’s version Jesus says, “For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth” (Matthew 12:40).
  • Isaiah 49:6 says “I will also give you for a light to the nations, that you may be my salvation to the end of the earth”. Luke quotes this verse in Luke 2:32; Acts 1:8; 13:47.
  • Joel 2:32 says, “It will happen that whoever will call on the name of Yahweh shall be saved,” which Luke quotes in Acts 2:21.

Jesus’ Mandate (vv. 47b-48)

…to all the nations,
beginning from Jerusalem.
You are witnesses…

CROSS REFERENCES 🔑

47. that repentance. Da +*9:24. Mt 3:2. *9:13. Ac +*2:38. +*3:19. 5:31. *11:18. *13:38, 39, 46. 17:30, 31. *20:21. 26:20. 1 J *2:12. in his name. Lk 9:48. Ac 4:12. among. Lk 2:32. Ge +*12:3. Ps *22:27. 67:2-4, 7. *86:9. 98:1-3. ch. 117. Is +*2:1-3. 11:10. 19:24, 25. 42:6. *49:6, 22. 52:10, 15. 60:1-3. 66:18-21. Je *31:34. Ho *2:23. Mi *4:2. Ml 1:11. Mt +*8:10, 11. +28:19. Ac 13:46-48. *18:5, 6. 28:28. Ro *10:12-18. 15:8-16. Ga 3:8. Ep *3:8. Col *1:27. beginning. ver. 49. Lk *13:34. Is 5:4. Ho 11:8. Mt *10:5, 6. Ac 1:4. 2:14-47. 3:25, 26. 10:37. 13:46. Ro 5:20. *11:26, 27. Ep 1:6.

48. ye are witnesses. Jn *15:27. Ac +1:8, 22. +*2:32. 3:15. *4:33. *5:32. *10:39, 41. 13:31. 22:15. 1 Co 15:15. He 2:3, 4. 1 P 5:1. 2 P 1:16. 1 J 1:2, 3.


COMMENTARY

Disciples are to proclaim the Gospel

AGAPE BIBLE STUDY – Universal power and kingship now belong to the risen Jesus; therefore, He confers upon the eleven ministers of His Church a universal mission to teach the Gospel message of salvation and baptize believers from Jerusalem to the ends of the earth. Notice that Jesus links repentance to the forgiveness of sins and the call to salvation. Without genuine repentance (the changing of one’s heart from rebellion to obedience towards God) there can be no forgiveness of sins (see, for example, Mt 3:2; Lk 1:77; 3:8; 5:32; 13:3; Acts 2:38; 3:19, 26; 5:31; 10:43; 13:38; 17:30; 26:20).


Direction of the proclamation

SERMON WRITER – Prior to Jesus, the Jews had assumed a centripetal model, with the world being drawn toward a central point, Jerusalem. After Jesus, the model reverses. The church begins its work in Jerusalem, but Jesus pushes it outward toward the nations of the world rather than pulling it inward, as before. Note the sequence: Jerusalem is the center. Judea is the province in which Jerusalem is located. Samaria is the adjoining province. And, finally, all the world will learn of Jesus and the salvation he came to offer.


Origin of the word martyr

SERMON WRITER – A witness (marturion) is a person who has seen something and can testify to the facts of the case.That was the case with these disciples, who had seen Jesus with their own eyes. They could testify to having seen Jesus after his resurrection (Lk 24:36-49). They could also testify to seeing him ascend into heaven (Lk 24:50-53). Now these disciples will testify to what they have seen, and some will be killed as a consequence.

Over time, fewer and fewer Christians saw the resurrected Jesus with their own eyes. However, they told the story, often at the cost of their own lives. As a result, this word marturion came to mean martyr—those who were killed because of their Christian witness.

✍️ APPLICATION

Sharing the Mission of Jesus

MSGR. RUSSELL TERRA –  We are truly gifted and blessed. As disciples of Jesus, we are doubly gifted and blessed. But we are also entrusted with a commission. We are to be witnesses for Jesus and for the Father who sent him. Consequently, we must challenge non-believers by the way we live our lives – We must lead them to question why wealth, power, and pleasure do not determine or control our lives. We should inspire them to discover that people have far more value than material things – that love encompasses infinitely more than eros – that repentance and forgiveness bring a peace beyond human understanding – and that being vulnerable opens the human heart to the realm of the Spirit’s power!

REV MICHAEL CHUA – When the Church is removed from its mission, she ends up becoming a fortress or a museum. She keeps things safe and predictable and there is a need for this – we need to be protected from the dangers of the world and from sin. But if her role is merely “protective” she leaves many within her fold feeling stranded in a no man’s land between an institution that seems out of touch and a complex world they feel called to understand and influence.


In an age of pandemic, what should we make of Jesus commissioning us “into the world”?

SALT’S LECTIONARY COMMENTARY – Even as things begin to open up here and there, don’t we still need to be cautious, to keep our distance? In the first place, “the world” includes our personal lives and homes and families and friends, both the people we live with and the people with whom we’re in touch from a distance — so we can live out Jesus’ commission by living together with love and forgiveness, and by reaching out from a distance to those who need encouragement and companionship. Second, physical distancing and getting vaccinated, properly understood, are themselves practices with life-and-death effects “in the world for the love of the world” — so we can and should think of them as profoundly consequential forms of social engagement. And third, there are all kinds of ways to connect with the wider world and support our neighbors, from vaccination to donating money to supporting policies that protect the most vulnerable. Now more than ever, with wisdom and vigor: Into the world, for the love of the world!

Jesus’ Promise (v. 49)

Behold I am sending the promise of my Father upon you, but stay in the city until you are clothed with power from on high

CROSS REFERENCES 🔑

49. I send. ƒ96C7, Mt +26:24. Is *44:3, 4. 59:20, 21. Ezk *36:27. Jl +*2:28, etc. Zc 12:10. Jn *14:16, 17, 26. 15:26. *16:7-16. Ac 2:16, 17, 33. Ep 1:13. promise. Ge 1:2. Ac ✓∥1:4, 5. my Father. Lk 10:22. 22:29. Mt 7:21. Jn 5:17. but tarry. Is 32:15. Ac *1:4, 8. *2:1-21. in the city. ver. 47. endued. Jb 8:22. 29:14. 39:19. Ps 35:26. 93:1. 132:9. Is 52:1. 61:10. Ro 13:12, 14. 1 Co 15:53, 54. 2 Co 5:2, 4. Col 3:12. 1 P 5:5. power from. In the parallel passage at Ac 1:5 termed pneuma hagion, “Holy Ghost,” without articles (Mt 1:18n), showing the enduement to be his gifts, not himself. Lk 5:17. Ge 1:2. Mi 3:8. Ac 1:8. on high. Lk 1:78. Is 32:15.


COMMENTARY

The Greek word apostello

SERMON WRITER – Literally, “I am sending you what my Father promised.” We might expect the Father to send the gift, but instead Jesus sends it himself, acting as the Father’s mediator. The Greek word apostello (send forth) is of particular interest because of its relationship to apostolos (apostle). The apostles were those who were sent forth. But here Jesus uses the word apostello to speak of sending forth, not the apostles, but the fulfillment of God’s promise.


The baptism of the Holy Spirit

SERMON WRITER – Jesus does not reveal here what the Father has promised. In the Acts of the Apostles, Luke’s sequel to this Gospel, Jesus repeats this promise (Acts 1:5) and reveals that the gift is the baptism of the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:5). Luke further records Peter’s Pentecost Day sermon, in which Peter quotes the prophet Joel, “It will be in the last days, says God, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh” (Acts 2:17; see Joel 2:28). Peter assures his listeners that they have seen this prophecy fulfilled in the sound of a violent wind, the tongues of fire, and the glossolalia that they observed that day (Acts 2:1-13, 16)—manifestations of the Spirit.


The Greek word dunamin

SERMON WRITER “But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power (Greek: dunamin—the word from which we get our word “dynamite”) from on high” (Lk24:49b). The purpose of their waiting is to be “clothed with power from on high,” a reference to the coming of the Holy Spirit. Jesus is leaving the disciples with a great responsibility, and they are not ready yet to tackle it. Earlier, Jesus sent out the disciples with “power and authority over all demons, and to cure diseases” and told them to “preach the Kingdom of God, and to heal the sick” (Lk 9:1-2). Now they are to proclaim repentance and forgiveness of sins to all nations (Lk 24:47). Only after they receive the gift of the Holy Spirit will they be able to do that effectively. Even after receiving the gift, they will struggle with the “to all nations” component of their commission. Not until Peter’s rooftop vision and his encounter with Cornelius (Acts 10) and his report to the church at Jerusalem (Acts 11) will the church really open its arms to Gentiles.

✍️ APPLICATION

Waiting is essential to discipleship

FR GEORGE SMIGAAs disciples of Jesus, we face some serious and difficult commands. Jesus commands us to speak out against injustice, even though it might make us unpopular. He commands us to lay down our life for our neighbor. He commands us to forgive our enemies.

When we hear these commands our first response is: “I can’t do that. I don’t have the courage, the generosity, or the goodness to follow that command.” It is then that we must remember that Jesus fully intends to fund all of his mandates. This is why we, like the disciples, must wait for the power of the Spirit that will allow us to accomplish what Jesus asks of us.

Waiting, then, is essential to discipleship. Many times, people come to talk to me, because they are struggling with the expectations of the gospel. They have been hurt deeply or rejected by someone. Their life has been turned upside-down, because someone has offended them. They come to me and they say: “Father, I know that Jesus commands me to forgive my enemy, but I can’t do it. When I think of this person, all I have is anger and a desire to get even.” In those circumstances, I encourage people to wait, reminding them that the ability to forgive requires God’s help. If Jesus commands us to forgive our enemy, he must provide the means by which we are to do it. Forgiving an enemy runs contrary to our human inclinations, and so we are dependent on power from another source. We must wait for power from on high, in order to follow Jesus’ directive.

🔴 CATHOLIC PRAXIS

Novena: Disciples pray for nine days before coming of the Spirit

AGAPE BIBLE STUDY – The disciples obediently returned to the same Upper Room in Jerusalem where they held the Last Supper. In obedience to Jesus’s command, it was there that the Apostles, the men and women disciples, the Virgin Mary, and Jesus’s kinsmen all remained in prayer for nine days as the united 120 members of the first Christian community (Acts 1:13-15). Under the Old Covenant traditions, 120 was the minimum number required for forming a religious community.

They continued in prayer, waiting for the coming of the Holy Spirit on the Jewish Feast of Weeks/Pentecost on the tenth day after Jesus’s Ascension and fifty days from His Resurrection (Acts chapter 2).  For this reason, a “novena,” a prayer with a single petition (in Latin “novem,” meaning “nine”), lasts for nine days.

Jesus’ Blessing (v. 50)

He led them out as far as Bethany,
raised his hands, and blessed them

CROSS REFERENCES 🔑

50. as far. Mk 11:1. Ac 1:12. to Bethany. Lk 19:29. Mt 21:17. 26:6. Mk 11:1, 11, 12. 14:3. Jn 11:1, 18. 12:1. he lifted. Ge 14:18-20. 27:4. 48:9. 49:28. Nu 6:23-27. Mk *10:16. He 7:5-7.


COMMENTARY

Bethany

SERMON WRITER – Bethany is located about two miles (3 km.) east of Jerusalem. It is the home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus—and was where Jesus brought Lazarus back from the dead (John 12:1-8).


Priestly benediction

SERMON WRITERThis is a priestly benediction. Jesus imparts a blessing to his disciples as he prepares for his departure, following the model of Jacob’s blessing of his sons before his death (Genesis 49) and Moses’ blessing of the Israelites before his death (Deuteronomy 33).

🔴 CATHOLIC PRAXIS

Luke 24:46-53

Jesus’ Ascension (vv. 51-52)

He parted from them
and was taken up to heaven.
They did him homage

CROSS REFERENCES 🔑

51. blessed them. Dt =33:1. Ac 3:26. he was parted. 2 K *2:11. Mk *16:19. Jn *20:17. Ac *1:9, +*11. Ep *4:8-10. He 1:3. *4:14. carried up. Ps 68:16. Jn 3:13.

52. they worshipped him. Mt +*8:2. +*14:33. *28:9, 17. Jn +20:28. He +*1:6. returned. ver. 49. with great joy. Ps 30:11. Jn 14:28. *16:7, 22. 1 P *1:8.

53. continually. ƒ171D, Mk +16:20. in the temple. Ac *2:46, 47. 3:1. *5:21, 41, 42. blessing God. Lk 1:64. 2:28. 13:13. Amen. Mt *28:20. Mk 16:20. Re 22:21.


COMMENTARY

Familiar Old Testament model

SERMON WRITER – Jesus’ ascension follows a familiar Old Testament model:

  • Genesis 5:24 tells of Enoch, who “walked with God, and he was not, for God took him”—an ascension-like account.
  • 2 Kings 2 tells of Elijah’s being taken up into heaven within view of his disciple, Elisha. What is especially significant about that story is Elisha’s request to receive a double portion of Elijah’s spirit (v. 9), a request that God granted, resulting in Elisha performing great miracles.

The apostles move from fear to worship

SERMON WRITERIn the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts (also written by Luke), only God is worshiped—not idols, not people. The fact that these disciples worship Jesus signifies that they “have, at last, recognized Jesus for who he is” (Green, 862). Only a few verses earlier, they were frightened, thinking Jesus to be a ghost (v. 37). How quickly they move from fear to worship once Jesus shows them clearly who he is, what he expects of them, and how he will empower their ministry.


The apostles say goodbye

FR GEORGE SMIGAOn this Feast of the Ascension, the disciples in today’s gospel had to face a major goodbye.  They had to say goodbye to the physical presence of Jesus.  As Jesus ascended to the Father he promised the Spirit who would be with them always.  But he would no longer physically be present to them as he was in his ministry or in his glorious body after the resurrection.  Life was changing and the disciples had to let go of what they once had.  But even as Jesus leaves them, he also points out to the disciples a way in which they can say goodbye well.  He points it out not only for their benefit but for ours.  Jesus asks them to remember the things of the past, his death and resurrection, and the proclamation of the Good News.  He says to them,  “You will be witness to all these things.”  Now at first it might seem strange or counter-intuitive to point to the past as a way of dealing with Jesus’ departure.  After all, remembering the past is remembering the very things we no longer have.  But by asking them to witness to the past Jesus is actually showing the disciples an effective way of saying goodbye well.

🟢  AGNUS DAY COMIC STRIP

SOURCE: James Wetzstein, Lutheran pastor.

🔴 CATHOLIC PRAXIS

Because of the Ascension we have access to Heaven

FR. VINCENT HAWKSWELL – “Left to its own natural powers, humanity does not have access to the Father’s house, to God’s life and happiness,” the Catechism says. “No one has gone up to heaven,” Jesus told Nicodemus, “except the one who came down from there” – himself. Now we have this access. “And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself,” he said. “We too shall go where he, our head and our source, has preceded us,” says the Catechism. In the Creed, then, we confidently proclaim our belief in “life everlasting.” God will “divinize” us, the Catechism says – make us divine, like himself – and will welcome us into the bliss of the Holy Trinity’s life and love. The Catechism says that God became man so that we might share in “the divine nature,” as we pray in the Offertory at Mass; so that God, “made man, might make men gods”; “so that we might become God.” These are not overstatements.

Christ talks about the Church

AUGUSTINE: What did he tell them from the Scriptures? He said, “Repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.” The disciples could not see this. They could see Christ talking about the church that would be. When Christ said something they could not see, they believed him. They could see the head, but they could not yet see the body. We can see the body, but we believe about the head. They are two: husband and wife, head and body, Christ and the church. He showed himself to the disciples and promised them the church. He showed us the church and ordered us to believe about himself. The apostles saw one thing, but they did not see the other. We also see one thing and do not see the other. Having the head there with them, they believed about the body. Having the body here with us, we should believe about the head. SERMON 229I.1.

SOURCE: Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture (Luke), Edited by Thomas C. Oden, InterVarsity Press ©2005, Used with permission.
CATENA AUREA

Luke 24:45–49

45. Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the Scriptures,

46. And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:

47. And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.

48. And ye are witnesses of these things.

49. And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.

BEDE. After having presented Himself to be seen with the eye, and handled with hands, and having brought to their minds the Scriptures of the law, He next opened their understanding that they should understand what was read.

THEOPHYLACT. Otherwise, how would their agitated and perplexed minds have learnt the mystery of Christ. But He taught them by His words; for it follows, And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, that is, by the wood of the Cross.

BEDE. But Christ would have lost the fruit of His Passion had He not been the Truth of the resurrection, therefore it is said, And to rise from the dead. He then after having commended to them the truth of the body, commends the unity of the Church, adding, And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations.

EUSEBIUS. For it was said, Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance. (Ps. 2:8.) But it was necessary that those who were converted from the Gentiles should be purged from a certain stain and defilement through His virtue, being as it were corrupted by the evil of the worship of devils, and as lately converted from an abominable and unchaste life. And therefore He says that it behoves that first repentance should be preached, but next, remission of sins, to all nations. For to those who first shewed repentance for their sins, by His saving grace He granted pardon of their transgression, for whom also He endured death.

THEOPHYLACT. But herein that He says, Repentance and remission of sins, He also makes mention of baptism, in which by the putting off of our past sins there follows pardon of iniquity. But how must we understand baptism to be performed in the name of Christ alone, whereas in another place He commands it to be in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. First indeed we say that it is not meant that baptism is administered in Christ’s name alone, but that a person is baptized with the baptism of Christ, that is, spiritually, not Judaically, nor with the baptism, wherewith John baptized unto repentance only, but unto the participation of the blessed Spirit; as Christ also when baptized in Jordan manifested the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove. Moreover you must understand baptism in Christ’s name to be in His death. For as He after death rose again on the third day, so we also are three times dipped in the water, and fitly brought out again, receiving thereby an earnest of the immortality of the Spirit. This name of Christ also contains in itself both the Father as the Anointer, and the Spirit as the Anointing, and the Son as the Anointed, that is, in His human nature. But it was fitting that the race of man should no longer be divided into Jews and Gentiles, and therefore that He might unite all in one, He commanded that their preaching should begin at Jerusalem, but be finished with the Gentiles. Hence it follows, Beginning at Jerusalem. (Rom. 3:2, Rom. 9:4.)

BEDE. Not only because to them were entrusted the oracles of God, and theirs is the adoption and the glory, but also that the Gentiles entangled in various errors might by this sign of Divine mercy be chiefly invited to come to hope, seeing that to them even who crucified the Son of God pardon is granted.

CHRYSOSTOM. (Hom. i. in Act.) Further, lest any should say that abandoning their acquaintances they went to shew themselves, (or as it were to vaunt themselves with a kind of pomp,) to strangers, therefore first among the very murderers themselves are the signs of the resurrection displayed, in that very city wherein the frantic outrage burst forth. For where the crucifiers themselves are seen to believe, there the resurrection is most of all demonstrated.

EUSEBIUS. But if those things which Christ foretold are already receiving their accomplishment, and His word is perceived by a seeing faith to be living and effectual throughout the whole world; it is time for men not to be unbelieving towards Him who uttered that word. For it is necessary that He should live a divine life, whose living works are shewn to be agreeable to His words; and these indeed have been fulfilled by the ministry of the Apostles. Hence He adds, But ye are witnesses of these things, &c. that is, of My death and resurrection.

THEOPHYLACT. Afterwards, lest they should be troubled at the thought, How shall we private individuals give our testimony to the Jews and Gentiles who have killed Thee? He subjoins, And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you, &c. which indeed He had promised by the mouth of the prophet Joel, I will pour my Spirit upon all flesh. (Joel 2:18.)

CHRYSOSTOM. (Hom. i. in Act.) But as a general does not permit his soldiers who are about to meet a large number, to go out until they are armed, so also the Lord does not permit His disciples to go forth to the conflict before the descent of the Spirit. And hence He adds, But tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.

THEOPHYLACT. That is, not with human but heavenly power. He said not, until ye receive, but be endued with, shewing the entire protection of the spiritual armour.

BEDE. But concerning the power, that is, the Holy Spirit, the Angel also says to Mary, And the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. (Luke 1:35.) And the Lord Himself says elsewhere, For I know that virtue is gone out of me. (Luke 8:45.)

CHRYSOSTOM. (ut sup.) But why did not the Spirit come while Christ was present, or immediately on His departure? Because it was fitting that they should become desirous of grace, and then at length receive it. For we are then most awakened towards God, when difficulties press upon us. It was necessary in the mean time that our nature should appear in Heaven, and the covenants be completed, and that then the Spirit should come, and pure joys be experienced. Mark also what a necessity He imposed upon them of being at Jerusalem, in that He promised that the Spirit should there be given them. For lest they should again flee away after His resurrection, by this expectation, as it were a chain, He kept them all there together. But He says, until ye be endued from on high. He did not express the time when, in order that they may be constantly watchful. But why then marvel that He does not reveal to us our last day, when He would not even make known this day which was close at hand.

GREGORY. (de Past. 3. c. 25.) They then are to be warned, whom age or imperfection hinders from the office of preaching, and yet rashness impels, lest while they hastily arrogate to themselves so responsible an office, they should cut themselves off from the way of future amendment. For the Truth Itself which could suddenly strengthen those whom it wished, in order to give an example to those that follow, that imperfect men should not presume to preach, after having fully instructed the disciples concerning the virtue of preaching, commanded them to abide in the city, until they were endued with power from on high. For we abide in a city, when we keep ourselves close within the gates of our minds, lest by speaking we wander beyond them; that when we are perfectly endued with divine power, we may then as it were go out beyond ourselves to instruct others.

AMBROSE. But let us consider how according to John they received the Holy Spirit, while here they are ordered to stay in the city until they should be endued with power from on high. Either He breathed the Holy Spirit into the eleven, as being more perfect, and promised to give it to the rest afterwards; or to the same persons He breathed in the one place, He promised in the other. Nor does there seem to be any contradiction, since there are diversities of graces. Therefore one operation He breathed into them there, another He promised here. For there the grace of remitting sins was given, which seems to be more confined, and therefore is breathed into them by Christ, that you may believe the Holy Spirit to be of Christ, to be from God. For God alone forgiveth sins. But Luke describes the pouring forth of the grace of speaking with tongues.

CHRYSOSTOM. Or He said, Receive ye the Holy Spirit, that He might make them fit to receive it, or indicated as present that which was to come.

AUGUSTINE. (de Trin. 15. c. 26.) Or the Lord after His resurrection gave the Holy Spirit twice, once on earth, because of the love of our neighbour, and again from heaven, because of the love of God.


The Joy of Entering Heaven

LEO THE GREAT: The ascension of Christ is our elevation. Hope for the body is also invited where the glory of the Head preceded us. Let us exult, dearly beloved, with worthy joy and be glad with a holy thanksgiving. Today we not only are established as possessors of paradise, but we have even penetrated the heights of the heavens in Christ. The indescribable grace of Christ, which we lost through the “ill will of the devil,” prepared us more fully for that glory. Incorporated within himself, the Son of God placed those whom the violent enemy threw down from the happiness of our first dwelling at the right hand of the Father. The Son of God lives and reigns with God the Father almighty and with the Holy Spirit forever and ever. Amen. SERMON 73.3–4.

SOURCE: Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture (Luke), Edited by Thomas C. Oden, InterVarsity Press ©2005, Used with permission.
CATENA AUREA

Luke 24:50–53

50. And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.

51. And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.

52. And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:

53. And were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.

BEDE. Having omitted all those things which may have taken place during forty-three days between our Lord and His disciples, St. Luke silently joins to the first day of the resurrection, the last day when He ascended into heaven, saying, And he led them out as far as to Bethany. First, indeed, because of the name of the place, which signifies “the house of obedience.” For He who descended because of the disobedience of the wicked, ascended because of the obedience of the converted. Next, because of the situation of the same village, which is said to be placed on the side of the mount of Olives; because He has placed the foundations, as it were, of the house of the obedient Church, of faith, hope, and love, in the side of that highest mountain, namely, Christ. But He blessed them to whom He had delivered the precepts of His teaching; hence it follows, And he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.

THEOPHYLACT. Perhaps pouring into them a power of preservation, until the coming of the Spirit; and perhaps instructing them, that as often as we go away, we should commend to God by our blessing those who are placed under us.

ORIGEN. But that He blessed them with uplifted hands, signifies that it becomes him who blesses any one to be furnished with various works and labours in behalf of others. For in this way are the hands raised up on high.

CHRYSOSTOM. But observe, that the Lord submits to our sight the promised rewards. He had promised the resurrection of the body; He rose from the dead, and conferred with His disciples for forty days. It is also promised that we shall be caught up in the clouds through the air; this also He made manifest by His works. For it follows, And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted, &c.

THEOPHYLACT. And Elias indeed was seen, as it were, to be taken up into heaven, but the Saviour, the forerunner of all, Himself ascended into heaven to appear in the Divine sight in His sacred body; and already is our nature honoured in Christ by a certain Angelic power.

CHRYSOSTOM. But you will say, How does this concern me? Because thou also shalt be taken up in like manner into the clouds. For thy body is of like nature to His body, therefore shall thy body be so light, that it can pass through the air. For as is the head, so also is the body; as the beginning, so also the end. See then how thou art honoured by this beginning. Man was the lowest part of the rational creation, but the feet have been made the head, being lifted up aloft into the royal throne in their head.

BEDE. When the Lord ascended into heaven, the disciples adoring Him where His feet lately stood, immediately return to Jerusalem, where they were commanded to wait for the promise of the Father; for it follows, And they worshipped him, and returned, &c. Great indeed was their joy, for they rejoice that their God and Lord after the triumph of His resurrection had also passed into the heavens.

GREEK EXPOSITOR. And they were watching, praying, and fasting, because indeed they were not living in their own homes, but were abiding in the temple, expecting the grace from on high; among other things also learning from the very place piety and honesty. Hence it is said, And were continually in the temple.

THEOPHYLACT. The Spirit had not yet come, and yet their conversation is spiritual. Before they were shut up; now they stand in the midst of the chief priests; distracted by no worldly object, but despising all things, they praise God continually; as it follows, Praising and blessing God.

BEDE. And observe that among the four beasts in heaven, (Ezek. 1:10. Rev. 4:7) Luke is said to be represented by the calf, for by the sacrifice of a calf, they were ordered to be initiated who were chosen to the priesthood; (Exod. 29:1.) and Luke has undertaken to explain more fully than the rest the priesthood of Christ; and his Gospel, which he commenced with the ministry of the temple in the priesthood of Zacharias, he has finished with the devotion in the temple. And he has placed the Apostles there, about to be the ministers of a new priesthood, not in the blood of sacrifices, but in the praises of God and in blessing, that in the place of prayer and amidst the praises of their devotion, they might wait with prepared hearts for the promise of the Spirit.

THEOPHYLACT. Whom imitating, may we ever dwell in a holy life, praising and blessing God; to Whom be glory and blessing and power, for ever and ever. Amen.

SOURCE: ECATHOLIC 2000 Commentary in public domain.